As with many Spanish cities, Barcelona is host to important medieval heritage of Jewish origin, including ancient burial grounds. When local authorities undertook archaeological activities to rescue this shared heritage, they encountered the strong and sometimes aggressive opposition of Orthodox and Ultra-Orthodox Jewish groups. The argument given was the apparent incompatibility between archaeology and the Halakha. Reverse Archaeology propones archaeological knowledge as a source of inspiration for spatial planningdesign, aiming to give a practical output to research paid by developers when an area is affected by archaeologicalresources not suitable for in situ preservation and public enhance. The response shows that it provides a tool forimplementing Dutch Belvedere programme but does not actually give a comprehensive answer to the fullmanagement of archaeological heritage, as is stated by the authors. Nevertheless, some positive points asserted byReverse Archaeology, such as decision-making process and stakeholder participation, are both critique commentedand encouraged for further work moving the discussion from spatial planning utilizing the past, to a more generalremark on the need of applying valued-based heritage management methods to the European post-Valetta scenario.
Han Material Culture is an analysis of Han dynasty BC-AD Chinese archaeology based on a comparison of the forms of vessels found in positively dated tombs.
Archaeologists use many different techniques to determine the age of a particular artifact, site, or part of a site. Two broad categories of dating or chronometric techniques that archaeologists use are called relative and absolute dating. Stratigraphy is the oldest of the relative dating methods that archaeologists use to date things. Stratigraphy is based on the law of superposition--like a layer cake, the lowest layers must have been formed first. In other words, artifacts found in the upper layers of a site will have been deposited more recently than those found in the lower layers.
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